Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Erin Stapleton-Corcoran, CATE Instructional Designer
January 25, 2023
WHAT? Heading link
Bloom’s taxonomy is a hierarchical model used for classifying learning objectives by levels of complexity and specificity. Bloom’s Taxonomy was created to outline and clarify how learners acquire new knowledge and skills. Though the original intention of the taxonomy was to serve as an assessment tool, Bloom’s taxonomy is effective in helping instructors identify clear learning objectives as well as create purposeful learning activities and instructional materials.
Bloom’s taxonomy emerged from a 1948 meeting of university educators – chaired by Benjamin Bloom – who brainstormed a theoretical model of learning that identified educational objectives to aid in the creation of testing items. The committee later expanded its initial framework to three learning domains:
- Cognitive: knowledge or thinking
- Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self)
- Psychomotor: manual or physical skills
Bloom’s Taxonomy consists of three learning domains: cognitive, affective and psychomotor.
Cognitive Domain Heading link
The cognitive domain went through numerous revisions before a finalized version was published (Bloom 1956).
The cognitive domain has been the primary focus in education and has become shorthand for Bloom’s Taxonomy as a result. The cognitive domain is made up of six levels of objectives. These levels are organized by hierarchy, moving from foundational skills to higher-order thinking skills.
In 2001 Anderson and Krathwohl revised Bloom’s levels from nouns to verbs, and this is the version of the taxonomy used today.
- Remember: retrieve relevant knowledge from memory.
- Understand: determine the meaning of instructional messages.
- Apply: use a procedure in a given situation.
- Analyze: break materials into components and determine how they work together.
- Evaluate: make judgments based on criteria and standards.
- Create: create a new or original work.
Anderson and Krathwohl revised Bloom’s levels from nouns to verbs.
Anderson and Krathwohl’s Two-Dimensional Taxonomy
When revising Bloom’s Taxonomy in 2001, Anderson and Krathwohl also added the knowledge dimension to the taxonomy. The knowledge dimension consists of four dimensions, which are:
- Factual knowledge (basic elements to learn or solve problems in the discipline)
- Conceptual knowledge (interrelationships between basic elements within a larger context)
- Procedural knowledge (methods in the discipline)
- Metacognitive knowledge (awareness of how learning work in relation to one’s self)
Based on this two-dimensional taxonomy, Anderson and Krathwohl developed a matrix for combining cognitive processes and knowledge dimensions which is shown to the left.
See the “How” section of this teaching guide to learn more about using the cognitive domain to craft learning objectives, assessments, and instructional materials and learning activities for your courses as well as how to implement the cognitive domain/knowledge dimension matrix when using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the classroom.
Affective Domain Heading link
The affective domain was first published in 1964 (Krathwohl et al, 1964). The affective domain outlines skills and behaviors that correspond to attitudes and values and as the learner progresses through the levels of the affective domain, they become self-reliant and internally motivated. Learning objectives aligned to the affective domain tend to be the hardest to articulate initially and often appear difficult to assess at first glance. However, affective outcomes often represent the outcomes most closely related to deeper thinking and lifelong learning.
The affective domain contains five levels, from lowest to highest:
- Receiving: Willing to listen and receive knowledge.
- Responding: Actively participates and engages in knowledge transfer.
- Valuing: Finds value and worth in one’s learning with motivation to continue.
- Organizing: Integrates and compares values, resolves conflict between these values, and orders them according to priorities.
- Characterizing: Creates a value system that controls behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and characteristic of the learner.
See the “How” section of this teaching guide to learn more about using the affective domain to craft learning objectives, assessments, and instructional materials and learning activities for your courses.
(Krathwohl et al., 1964)
Psychomotor Domain Heading link
Bloom and his colleagues did not create subcategories for skills in the psychomotor domain, but other educators did (Simpson 1966, 1972; Dave, 1970; Harrow, 1972). The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and motor skills. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or technical execution. For the purpose of this teaching guide, we will explore Simpson’s version of the psychomotor domain, which has the following seven levels:
- Perception: Use sensory cues to guide actions or movements.
- Set: Demonstrates a readiness (physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually) to take action to perform the task or objective. (NOTE: This level of the Psychomotor domain is closely related to the “Responding to phenomena” level of the Affective domain).
- Guided response: Knows steps required to complete the task or objective and learns through trial and error by practicing.
- Mechanism: Performs task or objective in a somewhat confident, proficient, and habitual manner.
- Complex overt response: Performs task or objective in a confident, proficient, and habitual manner. Expert level, high proficiency and performs with accuracy.
- Adaptation: Performs task or objective and can modify actions to account for new or problematic situations.
- Origination: Create new procedures and solutions to approach various situations.
Simpson’s seven levels of the psychomotor domain.
See the “How” section of this teaching guide to learn more about using the psychomotor domain to craft learning objectives, assessments, and instructional materials and learning activities for your courses.
WHY? Heading link
There are several benefits to applying Bloom’s taxonomy to your teaching.
- Bloom’s Taxonomy can help instructors craft clear, actionable learning objectives. Clear, actionable learning objectives help students understand the skills and knowledge they will gain during the course.
- Bloom’s Taxonomy can help instructors appropriately align instruction to the learning objectives, including the planning of learning activities and the delivery of instructional materials (Raths 2002).
- Bloom’s taxonomy helps instructors create valid and reliable assessments by aligning course learning objectives to any given level of student understanding or proficiency. Crooks (1998) suggests that much of college assessment involves recalling memorized facts, which only addresses the first level of learning. However, Bloom’s Taxonomy aids instructors in creating assessments that address all six levels of the cognitive domain.
- Bloom’s Taxonomy has been shown to enhance students’ higher-order thinking skills, such as critical thinking. Bissell and Lemons (2006) used Bloom’s Taxonomy to assess critical-thinking skills in an introductory biology course. They developed a process by which they prepared questions with both content and critical-thinking skills in mind, and prepared grading rubrics that specified how to evaluate both the content and critical-thinking aspects of an answer. Using this methodology helped Bissell and Lemons clarify the course goals (for instructors and students), improve student metacognition, and expose student misconceptions about the course content.
HOW? Heading link
How can you use Bloom’s Taxonomy to craft learning objectives?
Bloom’s Taxonomy can help you write clear learning objectives, which are a description of what the learner must be able to do upon completion of an educational activity. A well-written learning objective outlines the knowledge, skills, and/or attitude the learners will gain from the educational activity and does so in an observable and measurable way.
More specifically, Bloom’s can help you identify the level, criteria, or standards for the knowledge, skills, abilities, competencies, attitudes, or values that your students are expected to be able to demonstrate.
For the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains, there are action verbs that align with each level. These action verbs are invaluable in crafting effective learning objectives.
Use the following steps to craft learning objectives using Bloom’s taxonomy:
- Select the domain (cognitive, affective, or psychomotor) for the learning objective you want to design.
- Determine at what complexity level you want students to demonstrate their learning.
- Select an action verb that is aligned to the domain level that you want students to demonstrate.
Consult the tables below to view action verbs that align with each level of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains, as well as examples for each of the levels.
Cognitive domain Heading link
This domain is focused on intellectual skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and creating a knowledge base. The cognitive hierarchy consists of six levels, which span from simple memorization designed to build the knowledge of learners, to creating something new based on previously-learned information.
Remember: Can students recall crucial information?
Associated Verbs Learning Objectives arrange copy define Name the major bones of the leg. describe discover duplicate Define the term photosynthesis. enumerate find identify List the main events that led to the creation of Pakistan. label list locate Reproduce a timeline of events in the Iliad and the Odyssey. match memorize name Recite Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Raven.” observe omit order Locate the parts of a cell on a diagram. outline quote recall Underline all the adverbs in a text passage. recite recognize record Define the scientific terms in this lesson. repeat reproduce retell Recall the First Amendment. retrieve select state underline
Understand: Can students explain ideas and concepts?
Associated Verbs Learning Objectives ask associate cite clarify Explain how the autonomic nervous system works in the human body. classify convert demonstrate describe Restate the present problem in your own words. discover discuss distinguish elaborate Describe how to bake a cake. estimate exemplify explain express Provide examples of appropriate use of radiation therapy. extend familiarize generalize give examples Interpret Cubism in select artworks of Picasso. group indicate interpret map Translate the passage into English. match model observe order Model a parabola in a real world setting. outline paraphrase provide relate report represent research restate review rewrite select show summarize trace translate
Apply: Can students use information in a new way?
Associated Verbs Learning Objectives act administer apply articulate Calculate appropriate dosage for a child from information listed in a chart. calculate change chart choose Determine potential outcomes in a pregnant woman with gestational diabetes. collect combine complete compute Perform a physical exam according to established procedure. conduct demonstrate determine discover Complete a storyboard of digital images to demonstrate a process. document dramatize employ establish Complete a flowchart that illustrates a system. examine execute graph illustrate Perform the scene in the play. interview manipulate measure modify Practice processing an online order. operate organize paint perform Use a jigsaw to cut a piece of wood. place practice record relate schedule simulate sketch solve transfer transform use
Analyze: Can students distinguish between different parts or elements?
Associated Verbs Learning Objectives advertise appraise break down categorize Diagram the mechanism leading to shortness of breath in interstitial lung disease. classify compare conclude connect Deduce which of the patient’s symptoms can be explained by the primary diagnosis. contrast correlate deduce devise Select lab tests which should be done based on patient symptoms, history, and physical exam. diagram differentiate discriminate dissect Distinguish between findings which are and are not significant to the presenting problem. distinguish divide estimate examine Analyze data to determine user patterns. experiment explain extract identify Categorize the essential units in your organizational department. infer interpret investigate organize Distinguish between ethical and unethical behavior. outline plan point out question Analyze factors that support and compromise the body’s immune response. select separate subdivide survey test
Evaluate: Can students justify a position or defend a situation?
Associated Verbs Learning Objectives appraise argue assess Critique the most effective treatment from an array of options. check compare conclude Evaluate the reliability and validity of research claims/statistics. consider convince criticize Assess your peers’ work based on established criteria. critique debate decide Critique research proposals and provide suggestions for improvement. defend discriminate distinguish Debate the merits of a constitutional monarchy. editorialize evaluate find errors Defend your views on gentrification. grade justify order Appraise your group’s performance on a research project. persuade predict prioritize Recommend a solution to the problem of home ice dams. rank rate recommend Justify a proposal for school lunch fund allocations. reframe respond score Suggest the most useful products for carpet cleaning. substantiate suggest support Prioritize spending for local government. value verify weigh Assess the credibility of sources. Evaluate treatments used for common immune disorders.
Create: Can students produce new knowledge, a new product, or a new point of view?
Associated Verbs Example Learning Objectives adapt assemble compile compose Build a 3D model of a house on a computer. construct create design develop Design a computer lab for your program. devise express facilitate formulate Invent a machine to do a specific task. hypothesize imagine improve integrate Imagine a new product. and plan a marketing campaign. intervene invent make model Create a cover image for a film. negotiate originate plan portray Formulate a hypothesis for… prepare produce propose rearrange Compose a musical score for a short film. reorganize report revise role-play Devise a problem set for a math topic. schematize simulate speculate structure Plan a system of governance for a colony on Mars. substitute test validate write
Examples of Learning Objectives in the Cognitive Domain across the disciplines Heading link
Examples of Learning Objectives in the Cognitive Domain across the disciplines
By the end of the course, students will be able to:
- evaluate core concepts related to the evolution of language.
- generate theories of syntax by analyzing linguistic evidence.
- produce an illustration of the phonemic inventory of a language.
- define terms relevant to the field of linguistics.
- explain linguistic concepts and how they apply to the study of language.
- use analytical techniques to identify patterns and trends in linguistic data.
- identify linguistic features.
- evaluate linguistic theories for their relevance in real-world scenarios.
Students will be able to:
- describe levels of organization and related functions in plants and animals.
- identify the characteristics and basic needs of living organisms and ecosystems.
- explain the processes of growth and development in individuals and populations.
- define specific biological terms.
- explain the role of specific biological processes in living organisms.
- use statistical techniques to analyze experimental data.
- identify the parts of a biological system located in a diagram.
- create a model or diagram that illustrates relationships and interdependence in specific biological concepts.
- evaluate evidence for a given set of hypotheses.
Students will be able to:
- identify literary techniques and creative uses of language in literary texts.
- adapt texts to particular audiences and purposes.
- articulate a thesis with evidence to support it.
- explain the relevance of themes found in literary texts.
- explain the meaning of a literary passage and how it contributes to the overall theme of the work.
- analyze the use of literary elements in a specific literary work.
- explain plot, characters, and themes in a literary work.
- place literary themes in the context of a specific time period or cultural movement.
- judge the quality of a literary work and its effectiveness in conveying the intended message.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
- describe basic concepts of legal, ethical, economic, and regulatory dimensions of health care and public health policy.
- evaluate the impact of policies and legislation on individual and population health.
- analyze current trends in public health policy.
- evaluate short and long term prevention strategies to specific public health threats.
- define public health terms.
- explain the causes and effects of public health issues.
- use statistical techniques to identify trends in public health data.
- evaluate the effectiveness of relevant public health policies.
- design a comprehensive public health program that addresses contemporary public health issues.
Students will be able to:
- execute classification tasks using multiple perceptrons.
- explain the gradient descent-based learning principle.
- analyze the role of activation functions in neural networks.
- distinguish between supervised and unsupervised learning.
- define key engineering principles.
- build a prototype of a simple machine within design specifications.
- review structural analysis data to suggest modifications to a structural design.
- create a new design that presents a unique solution to a specific engineering problem.
- evaluate the effectiveness of engineering projects based on their performance and cost.
Affective domain Heading link
The affective domain focuses on a student’s attitudes, values, and interests. Composed of five levels, this domain begins with receiving and listening to information, and extends to characterization, or internalizing values and consistently acting upon these values.
Receiving: Are students willing to listen and receive knowledge?
Associated Verbs Example Learning Objectives accept acknowledge Students will be able to listen to others with respect. attend choose Students will be able to listen for the names of newly introduced people. follow give Students will be aware of the feelings of others. identify listen Students will be able to recognize that there is more than one point of view. name select Students will be able to hold focus while watching a video or presentation. Students will be able to accept differences in race and culture.
Responding: Do students actively participate and engage in knowledge transfer?
Associated Verbs Example Learning Objectives agree to answer Students will participate in class discussions. ask assist Students will be able to give a presentation. clarify communicate Students will read assigned works. contribute cooperate Students will be able to question new ideas or concepts in order to understand them. discuss help Students will obey safety rules. indicate inquire Students will comply with classroom community agreements. participate question Students will be able to complete homework assignments. Students will seek new information voluntarily. Students will accept their own strengths and weaknesses.
Valuing: Do students accept and find worth in their own learning?
Associated Verbs Example Learning Objectives accept approve complete Students will be able to demonstrate belief in the democratic process. choose commit describe Students will propose a plan for social improvement and follow through with commitment. debate demonstrate explain Students will Inform colleagues on matters that they feel strongly about. establish identify initiate Students will show self-reliance when working independently. justify prepare
Organizing: Do students integrate and compare values, ordering them according to priorities?
Associated Verbs Example Learning Objectives adapt arrange categorize Students will recognize the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. classify compare complete Students will accepts responsibility for one’s actions and behavior. defend establish formulate Students will accept professional ethical standards. generate integrate modify Students will create a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. order prepare rank Students will prioritize time effectively to meet work, family, and personal needs. relate
Characterizing: Do students hold values that control the outcome of their behavior?
Associated Verbs Example Learning Objectives act arrange behave Students will show self-reliance when working independently. characterize defend display Students will display teamwork when working in groups. exemplify function incorporate Students will use an objective approach in problem solving. influence justify listen Students will display a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. maintain modify practice Students will revise judgment and behavior in light of new evidence. preserve perform propose Students will value people for what they are, not how they look. question revise
Examples of Affective Learning Objectives Across the Disciplines Heading link
Examples of Affective Learning Objectives Across the Disciplines
Students will be able to:
- contribute meaningfully to class discussion by identifying their own questions about the readings.
- articulate their insights about the readings.
- respond respectfully to others’ comments.
- express their own opinions about issues raised in controversial texts.
- identify the values and beliefs expressed in literary works from different cultural perspectives.
- consider alternative viewpoints when reading texts that challenge their own beliefs and values.
- express empathy for the experiences and perspectives of others shared in course readings.
Students will be able to:
- work collaboratively in a group setting.
- display leadership by keeping the team on task.
- articulate professional ethical standards of the field.
- demonstrate curiosity and persistence in finding solutions to a set of engineering problems.
- collaborate effectively with team members.
- apply engineering principles to solve specific social and environmental problems.
- analyze the causes of specific engineering failures to identify opportunities for learning and improvement.
- celebrate the engineering achievements of others and themselves.
Students will be able to:
- articulate how social identities inform beliefs, values, and attitudes in themselves and others.
- respect the diverse perspectives of others.
- demonstrate empathy for the experiences and perspectives of different social groups.
- express their own opinions and values about sociological issues and consider the perspectives of others.
- reflect on their own social identities and the ways in which they may be shaped by societal structures and norms.
- develop a sense of social responsibility and a commitment to social change.
Psychomotor domain Heading link
The psychomotor domain focuses on a student’s ability to physically accomplish tasks and to perform nonverbal communication and expressive activities. The psychomotor domain consists of seven levels.
Perception: Do students use their senses to guide motor activity?
Associated Verbs Example Learning Objectives adjust choose Students will be able to detect auditory cues in playing a musical instrument as a member of an ensemble. describe detect Students will be able to recognize different types of food based on appearance and taste. differentiate distinguish Students will be able to detect non-verbal communication cues. estimate identify Students will be able to estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then move to the correct location to catch the ball. Isolate recognize Students will be able to adjust the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet. relate select
Guided Response: Beginner level, learns through trial and error by practicing
Associated Verbs Assessment Learning Activity assembles attempts Evaluate accuracy with criteria on standard performance Complete training builds copies Give feedback Experiment using new tools/instruments through trial and error follows imitates Follows manual to run and program machine reacts reproduces Games and hands-on activities responds traces Use new tools by following demonstrations or being guided by mentor tries
Mechanism: Intermediate level, develops proficiency and action becomes habitual
Associated Verbs Assessment Learning Activity assembles constructs Performance test (performance indicator) Cognitive rehearsal of physical task dismantles displays Self-evaluation on progress and confidence in performing movement Perform gross motor movements (ex. dead lift, squats etc.) fastens fixes Practice instruments and use controlled movements grinds measures Program and practice running machines mends mixes Practice using equipment organizes sketches
Complex Overt Response: Expert level, high proficiency and performs with accuracy
Associated Verbs Assessment Learning Activity assembles builds calibrates Clinical exams Control and use correct movements when playing instruments constructs dismantles display Final project (ex. create project exhibition) Final projects fastens fixes grinds Performance Operate and run machines efficiently (ex. drill press, band saw, pump etc.) heats measures mends Perform fine movements (ex. adjust stopcock of a buret) mixes operates organizes Use equipment with confidence performs sketches
Adaptation: Skills strongly developed and can be modified in different situations
Associated Verbs Assessment Learning Activity adapts alters Assess and evaluate outcomes Control fine movement changes required for music dynamics and style changes modifies Self-criteria Field-trips rearranges reorganize Strategic games revise varies Revise and improve procedures of movements Use tools for situations outside typical discipline
Origination: Create new procedures and solutions to approach various situations
Associated Verbs Assessment Learning activity arranges builds Assess and evaluate outcomes Creates own choreography combines composes Rubric Creates own process in executing physical tasks constructs creates Self-criteria Strategically creates own workout plans designs formulates initiates makes modifies originates re-designs
Adapted in part from Bloom’s Taxonomy Learning Activities and Assessments, Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of Waterloo.
How can you use Bloom’s Taxonomy in the classroom? Heading link
How can you use Bloom’s Taxonomy in the classroom?
There are many ways that Bloom’s can be applied to course planning to ensure effective instruction and student learning is occurring. Several approaches to lesson planning that build on Bloom’s Taxonomy are described below.
Expertise pathways involve using increasingly sophisticated cognitive processes to accumulate deeper understanding. This deeper understanding or expertise can be accomplished by moving through Bloom’s levels to explore a discrete learning topic or concept. The example below demonstrates expertise in the cognitive domain, focusing on a particular play script (Gershon 2013). Remember the names and relationships of a cast of characters in a play A multiple-choice test designed to test the memory of learners. Explain the main ideas of a play Write a short (1 page) paper summarizing the plot and most important events in the play. Apply the main ideas/themes in the play to another context Write an advice column responding to one of the characters. Analyze the roles of each character in the play and their relationships to each other. Write an analytical paper comparing the antagonists and protagonists of the play. Evaluate the decisions of characters in the play, and support your evaluation with textual evidence. Write a response to one of the events in the play, either supporting or rejecting their actions on the basis of evidence from the play as well as personal opinion and projected/actual consequences of action. Create a new and unique piece of writing using similar plot devices. Create a short story using similar plot devices in a new time or setting.
Differentiated instruction (all/most/some)
Differentiated instruction is the process of tailoring lessons to meet the needs, interests, strengths, and ability levels of individual students in the classroom. Gershon (2013, 2019) builds differentiation into instruction by splitting up a lesson objective into three outcomes as follows:
- All students will be able to…
- Most students will be able to…
- Some students will be able to…
Gershon uses different levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy to define the all/most/some outcomes.
- All = understand
- Most = apply
- Some = evaluate
Alternatively, you can select a keyword from one of the top two levels of the taxonomy and then modify these to create increasingly complex learning objectives.
- All = evaluate
- Most = critically evaluate
- Some = critically evaluate with reference to evidence, examples and reasons (pp 7)
Three-part lesson Heading link
Another technique Gershon suggests is to divide the taxonomy into sections. For example, he splits the levels of the cognitive domain into three sections: remember and understand, apply and analyze, and evaluate and create. Then, he divides the lesson into three segments and focuses on one of the three sections of the domains in that lesson segment.
To implement Gershon’s technique, divide your lesson into three segments. Assign “remember and understand” to the first segment, “apply and analyze” to the second segment, and “evaluate and create” to the third segment of the lesson.
Below are example activities that can be used for each section of the lesson:
Section One: Remember and Understand
- Working individually, ask students to list all that they know about the topic.
- Write a summary of prior knowledge related to the topic.
- Read through the information they have compiled and put it into their own words
- Have students share what they already know about the topic with their partner.
Section Two: Apply and Analyze
- Use what you know about the topic to explain specific scenarios.
- Ask students to interpret a situation, text or event using prior knowledge.
- Challenge students to analyze new information and explain how it works.
- Give students a set of sources and ask them to analyze these.
Section Three: Evaluate and Create
- Challenge students to weigh the strengths and weaknesses of the information or ideas they have analyzed.
- Ask students to write a report on the topic focusing on its pros and cons
- Have students craft a piece of creative writing based on what they have studied.
- Ask students to create a solution to a problem they have previously analyzed.
Alternatively, Crowe et al (2008) divide Bloom’s taxonomy into two sections referred to as lower order cognitive skills (LOCS) and higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) to better align assessments with learning activities in college-level Biology classes. LOCS comprise the first three cognitive levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy (remember, understand, and apply) whereas HOCS include the second three levels (analyze, evaluate, and create).
Teach with Anderson and Krathwohl’s Two Dimension Taxonomy: Cognitive Processes and Knowledge Dimensions Heading link
Teach with Anderson and Krathwohl’s Two Dimension Taxonomy: Cognitive Processes and Knowledge Dimensions
Another way to enhance the use of Bloom’s Taxonomy is by considering learning objectives simultaneously through Anderson and Krathwohl’s Two Dimensional Taxonomy: Cognitive Processes and Knowledge Dimensions Matrix. Richlin (2006) adapted this matrix for planning courses and lessons, which is shown in the table below. Examples of learning objectives that intersect the cognitive process and knowledge dimension are also detailed. Cognitive Process Cognitive Process Cognitive Process Dimension Dimension Dimension Remember: Retain, recall and recognize knowledge Understand: Translate and interpret knowledge Apply: Use knowledge in different situations Analyze: Break down information to look at relationships Evaluate: Make judgements based on evidence found Create: Compile information to generate new solutions Factual Knowledge: basic elements to learn or solve problems in the discipline Remember + Factual List primary and secondary colors Understand + Factual Summarize features of a new product Apply + Factual Respond to frequently asked questions Analyze + Factual Select the most complete list of activities Evaluate + Factual Check for consistency among sources Create + Factual Generate a log of daily activities Conceptual Knowledge: interrelationships between basic elements within a larger context Remember + Conceptual Recognize symptoms of exhaustion Understand + Conceptual Classify adhesives by toxicity Apply + Conceptual Provide advice to novices Analyze + Conceptual Differentiate high and low culture Evaluate + Conceptual Determine relevance of results Create + Conceptual Assemble a team of experts Procedural Knowledge: methods in the discipline Remember + Procedural Recall how to perform CPR Understand + Procedural Clarify assembly instructions Apply + Procedural Carry out pH tests of water samples Analyze + Procedural Integrate compliance with regulations Evaluate + Procedural Judge efficiency of sampling techniques Create + Procedural Design efficient project workflow Metacognitive Knowledge: awareness of how learning work in relation to one’s self Remember + Metacognitive Identify strategies for retaining information Understand + Metacognitive Predict one’s response to culture shock Apply + Metacognitive Use techniques that match one's strengths Analyze + Metacognitive Deconstruct one's biases Evaluate + Metacognitive Reflect on one's progress Create + Metacognitive Create a learning portfolio
Adapted from Heer, accessed January 2023.
You may find it helpful to use this Two-Dimensional course planning worksheet to help you build courses and lessons that align with Anderson and Karthwohl’s cognitive process/knowledge domain (White 2019). We recommend you use this planning worksheet in conjunction with CATE’s course mapping document,
CITING THIS GUIDE Heading link
CITING THIS GUIDE
Stapleton-Corcoran, E. (2023). “Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.” Center for the Advancement of Teaching Excellence at the University of Illinois Chicago. Retrieved [today’s date] from https://teaching.uic.edu/blooms-taxonomy-of-educational-objectives/
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